Saturday, 3 June 2017

Religion Data of Census 2011: XLVIII Hindu Diaspora

The Hindu, Sikh and Jain Diaspora


In this final note in our series on the religious demography of India and the world in the context of the Religion Data of Census 2011, we present an estimate of the numbers of Hindu, Sikh and Jain diaspora and their distribution across the world. The numbers in this note are from the international religious demography sources that we have been using. For the Indian region, numbers of the Census of India are certainly more reliable.

Hindu diaspora is not large compared to their total numbers. Of 949 million Hindus in the world, 933 million are in their homeland of South Asia. There are only 15.5 million Hindus beyond South Asia. Of them 8.4 millions are in other regions of Asia leaving only 7.1 million Hindus in the world beyond Asia.

Thus only 1.63 percent of the Hindus are away from their home region. That fraction was 0.86 percent in 1900. This rise in the share of the diaspora in the total population has been largely because of migration of Hindu blue-collar workers to West Asia and migration of professional white-collar workers to Europe and North America.

A large part of the Hindu diaspora is in Southeast Asia. But the number of Hindus in that region has declined in the last decade, from 10.3 million in 2000 to 6.9 million in 2010. This is because of the sharp decline in the number of native Hindus in Indonesia.

After Southeast Asia, the largest number of Hindus is in West Asia. There are 1.3 million Hindus in that region, all of them in the peninsular Arabia. All this migration of Hindus to this region has taken place after 1970, when there were only 14 thousand Hindus there. There are not many Hindus in other regions of Asia.

There are 2.9 million Hindus in Africa. Of them, 1.6 million are in East Africa, mostly in Mauritius, Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Another about 1.2 million Hindus are in South Africa. There are only a few Hindus in other regions of Africa.

There are 1.0 million Hindus in Europe. Of them, 0.7 million are in the UK. The remaining Hindus are mostly in Netherlands, Germany and France. In 1970, there were only 220 thousand Hindus in Europe and all of them were in the UK. In 1990 and 2000, there were about 0.7 to 0.8 million Hindus in Russia also, but that number has declined to negligible levels now.

Another 1.8 million Hindus are in North America. Of them 1.4 million are in the USA and 0.4 million in Canada. In 1970, there were only 0.12 million Hindus in that continent.

There are also about 0.8 million Hindus in Latin America. Nearly all of them are in Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana and Suriname.

There are another 0.5 million Hindus in Oceania. Of them, nearly half are in Fiji and the other half in Australia and New Zealand. In 1970, there were only 4 thousand Hindus in New Zealand and none in Australia.

Sikh diaspora is bigger than the Hindu diaspora in relative terms. Of 23.9 million Sikhs in the world, 22.4 million are in South Asia and about 1.5 million elsewhere in the world. The diaspora thus forms 6.4 percent of all Sikhs, implying that every 15th or 16th Sikh is away from the homeland.

Of 1.5 million Sikhs outside South Asia, 0.3 million are in the rest of Asia, 0.5 million in Europe and 0.6 million in North America. There are only 73 thousand Sikhs in Africa, almost all of them in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. And there are 50 thousand in Oceania, nearly all of them in Australia and New Zealand.

Of 302 thousand Sikhs in Asia excluding South Asia, 157 thousand are in Southeast Asia, almost all of them in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Philippines. Another 109 thousand Sikhs are in West Asia. There are only a few Sikhs in East and Central Asia.

Of 502 thousand Sikhs in Europe, 412 thousand are in the United Kingdom. And of 607 thousand Sikhs in North America, 328 thousand are in Canada and 279 thousand in the USA. Canada and the UK thus seem particularly hospitable to Sikhs. The two countries account for nearly fifty percent of the entire Sikh diaspora. There has been considerable rise in the number of Sikhs in the UK and also Canada during the last decade.

Of 5.3 million Jains in the world, 223 thousand are beyond South Asia. This means that 4.20 percent of the Jains are away from their homeland. This fraction is also much bigger than the Hindus, only 1.63 percent of whom are away from South Asia. There has been a sudden rise in the Jain diaspora. In 2000, that number was only 76 thousand.

Of 223 thousand Jains in the world beyond South Asia, 94 thousand are in Africa, most of them in Kenya. Another 100 thousand are in North America, mostly in the USA.

Thus both Sikh and Jain diaspora are considerably bigger than the Hindu diaspora as a fraction of their population. But, both Sikh and Jain diaspora are less widespread than the Hindus. The latter are everywhere. The Sikhs and Jains, on the other hand, are concentrated in a few countries of the world.

With this note we are closing this series of the religious demography of India and the world. We still have to discuss and analyze the religious demography of the scheduled tribes of the Central and Western India. That issue needs to be looked carefully and in great detail. We shall take it up somewhat later.   


Distribution of Hindus across the World

Number of Hindus in different Continents of the World
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Total
203,003
462,598
685,999
811,336
948,575
South Asia
201,239
456,803
671,998
793,912
933,115
Outside South Asia
1,765
5,794
14,001
17,424
15,460
Rest of Asia
1,308
3,695
8,833
11,208
8,365
Beyond Asia
457
2,099
5,168
6,216
7,095
Percent share of different Continents in the Hindus of the World
South Asia
99.13
98.75
97.96
97.85
98.37
Rest of Asia
0.64
0.80
1.29
1.38
0.88
Beyond Asia
0.22
0.45
0.75
0.77
0.75

Hinduism is not a proselytizing religion
Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism is not a proselytizing religion; Hindus do not go around the world converting others to their faith. Though in classical times, when Indian civilization was at its peak, several countries of Southeast Asia came under the Hindu influence and evolved their own distinctive forms of Hinduism, remnants of which still survive in parts of Indonesia. Several other countries of Southeast and East Asia adopted Buddhism, another religious manifestation of the Indian civilization. As we have seen in our previous note, in many of those countries of Asia, Buddhism continues to survive and retain great vitality, though its connections with India have become tenuous.

There are not many Hindus outside South Asia
Hindus are today confined almost entirely to their homeland of South Asia, which is essentially the geographic and political India of the earlier times. Of 949 million Hindus in the world in 2010, only 15.5 million are outside South Asia and of them 8.4 million are in the rest of Asia, leaving only 7.1 million in the world beyond Asia.

Their number in the rest of Asia has been declining
Number of Hindus in Asia beyond South Asia showed some rise, especially after 1970. This was mainly because of a new stream of migration to West Asia. But during the last decade, number of Hindus in Asia excluding South Asia has declined precipitously from 11.2 to 8.4 million. This decline is due to the decline of Hindus in Indonesia from 7.3 million in 2000 to 3.9 million in 2010, as we shall see below.

Less than two percent of Hindus are outside South Asia
Hindus beyond South Asia form only 1.63 percent of the Hindus in the world. Between 1900 and 2000, there was some rise in this fraction from 0.87 to 2.15 percent; during the last decade it has declined to the current level. Both the fraction of Hindus in Asia excluding South Asia and in the world beyond Asia had increased somewhat between 1900 and 2000; both fractions have declined in the last decade.

Of 1.63 percent Hindus outside South Asia in 2010, 0.88 percent are in the rest of Asia and 0.75 percent in the world beyond Asia. In 1900, only 0.22 percent of the Hindus were outside Asia. That fraction has indeed increased by more than 3.5 times. But given the extraordinary movement of people across the world during the twentieth century, presence of 0.75 percent of the Hindus outside Asia does not seem large.

Within South Asia, Hindus are getting confined to India
As seen in the Table below, 91.4 percent of the Hindus in South Asia were in what now constitutes India at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 2010, 95.8 percent of the Hindus of South Asia are in India. This is mainly because of the expulsion of Hindus from the areas that now form Pakistan and Bangladesh. In 1900, 6.43 percent of the Hindus in South Asia were in Pakistan and Bangladesh; in 2010, the two countries accommodate only 1.76 percent of the Hindus of South Asia. Nepal now accommodates about 2.2 percent of the Hindus of South Asia, which is somewhat higher than the ratio in 1900. But during the last decade, Nepal’s share in the Hindus of South Asia has experienced a decline. Share of Sri Lanka in the Hindus of South Asia has also declined after 1970. The numbers thus give a distinct impression that the Hindus in South Asia are getting confined to the current truncated boundaries of India.

Number of Hindus in different countries of South Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
South Asia
201,239
456,803
671,998
793,912
933,116
India
184,023
433,214
639,696
755,135
893,642
Bangladesh
9,372
11,169
14,000
15,995
14,096
Pakistan
3,560
890
1,420
1,868
2,290
Nepal
3,410
9,100
14,503
18,354
20,282
Sri Lanka
828
2,174
2,000
2,124
2,722
Percent share of different countries in the Hindus of Asia
India
91.45
94.84
95.19
95.12
95.77
Bangladesh
4.66
2.45
2.08
2.01
1.51
Pakistan
1.77
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.25
Nepal
1.69
1.99
2.16
2.31
2.17
Sri Lanka
0.41
0.48
0.30
0.27
0.29


Hindus in Rest of Asia

Number of Hindus in other regions of Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Rest of Asia
1,308
3,696
8,833
11,208
8,365
Southeast Asia
1,292
3,556
8,162
10,252
6,918
West Asia
3
14
534
805
1,339
Central Asia
6
108
101
111
45
East Asia
7
18
36
40
62

Of the 15.5 million Hindus outside South Asia, 8.4 million are in other regions of Asia. Of them, 6.9 million are in Southeast Asia and 1.3 million in West Asia. There are not many Hindus in Central and East Asia.

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia came under Hindu and Buddhist influence early, perhaps by the third century BC. Native Hindu-Buddhist empires, ruled many countries of the region for centuries. These included Champa in Vietnam, Khmer in Cambodia, Sri Vijaya in Sumatra, Singosari and Majapahit empires in Java, Bali and parts of the Philippine Archipelago, and Langkasuka, Ganga Negara and Kedah in the Malay Peninsula. Modern Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Philippines, as also Myanmar in the near vicinity of India, were thus all parts of the Indian civilizational sphere. Later, Indonesia, which remained Hindu up to perhaps the sixteenth century, turned Islamic. Malaysia also became largely Islamic. Philippines continued to follow its traditional religions, which were strongly influenced by Hinduism, well into the modern times. The country, along with East Timor in the neighboring Indonesian archipelago, was converted to Christianity during colonial times by Spain and USA. Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar remain Buddhist to this day. But native Hindu presence there has largely waned in the region.

Now only Indonesia retains significant numbers of native Hindus. Hindus in other parts of Southeast Asia are largely descendants of indentured labourers brought into different parts of Southeast Asia by the British.

Their total number in the region was rising till 2000; it has undergone a sudden and sharp decline in the last decade. There were 1.3 million Hindus in Southeast Asia in 1900; that number rose to 10.3 million by 2000, but has now declined to 6.9 million. The decline is spread across several countries of Southeast Asia, but is the most precipitate in Indonesia.

Indonesia
Number (‘000) and percent share of Hindus

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Hindus
776
2,318
5,800
7,259
3,891
%Share
2.00
1.93
3.17
3.42
1.62
According to the international religious demography sources that we are using, number of Hindus in Indonesia was 7.3 million in 2000 and has declined to 3.9 million in 2010. The decline may be related to changes in the methodology adopted by our sources. Census of Indonesia counted 3.5 million Hindus in 2000 and 4.0 million in 2010, with their share in the total population changing marginally from 1.79 to 1.69 percent in this period.

The Census numbers for Hindus are considered too low by many sources. According to the US Department of State Annual Report on Freedom of Religion for 2006, the Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs had then estimated the Hindu population to be around 6.5 million. According to the same report, Parishada Hindu Dharma Indonesia estimated the number of Hindus at 18 million. The Report for 2010, mentions the number estimated by the Ministry of Religious Affairs to be even higher at 10 million.

Hindus in Indonesia are an ancient community. Hindu kingdoms ruled the main Islands of Java and Sumatra for several centuries until they were forced to shift to Bali in the sixteenth century under persistent Islamic attacks. The Island of Bali is now mostly Hindu. Of about 4 million Hindus counted in the Indonesian Census of 2010, 3.2 million are in Bali. However, their share in the population of Bali is declining. According to the Census, they formed 88 percent of the population of Bali in 2000; their share in 2010 has declined to 83.5 percent.

The low number and declining share of Hindus in Indonesia seems to be partly a matter of lack of official recognition. Unfortunately, there are no Indian institutions that keep track of the condition and demographics of Hindus in Indonesia or elsewhere.

Malaysia
Number (‘000) and percent share of
Hindus in Malaysia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Hindus
210
805
1,315
1,630
1,780
%Share
10.00
7.41
7.37
7.33
6.27
Hinduism in Malaysia also has ancient roots, as in Indonesia. But unlike in Indonesia, not many Malay Hindus have been able to evade conversion to Islam. Nearly all of the Hindus in Malaysia now are descendants of the indentured labourers brought by the British during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from South India. In 2010, there are about 1.78 million Hindus in Malaysia. They form 6.3 percent of the total population of 28.4 million. Their share has declined to this level from 10 percent in 1900. During the last decade alone, they have suffered a depletion of more than 1 percentage point. This decline of the presence of Hindus in Malaysia is mainly a consequence of the ascendance of Islam in public life there since the 1950s. Hindu community in Malaysia is known to be under severe pressure because of the public life in the country turning more and more aggressively Islamic with State patronage and support.

Singapore
Number (‘000) and percent share of
Hindus in Singapore

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Hindus
16
120
150
181
267
%Share
6.48
5.78
4.97
5.07
5.25
Singapore was once a part of Malaysia and historical roots of Hinduism in the island are similar to the peninsular Malaysia. Singapore, however, has a much larger Chinese presence than Malaysia and corresponding lower Muslim presence. Share of Hindus in the population is also somewhat lower than in Malaysia. Since 1970, there has been some improvement in the share of Hindus, probably because of migration from India.

Myanmar
Number (‘000) and percent share of
Hindus in Myanmar

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Hindus
284
250
660
893
818
%Share
2.72
0.92
1.63
1.96
1.71
Myanmar has been within the Indian cultural and political sphere since ancient times and was part of British India until the 1930s. There are few native Hindus in Myanmar now. Hindus, currently there, are largely descendants of the Hindu workers brought by the British in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.


After Independence, Myanmar expelled a large number of ethnic Indians and Chinese. Those expulsions reduced the share of Hindus in the country from 2.72 percent in 1900 to 0.92 percent in 1970. In the subsequent decades, there was some rise in their share. But during the last decade, both the absolute number and the share of Hindus have declined.

Hindus in other Southeast Asian countries
Number (‘000) of Hindus in Thailand,
Cambodia, Vietnam and Philippines

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Thailand
6
60
180
214
67
Vietnam
0
0
28
35
53
Cambodia
0
1
20
29
30
Philippines
0
1
1
2
3
There is now only a smattering of Hindus in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Philippines. Thailand and Cambodia are largely Buddhist. About half of Vietnam is Buddhist. In 2010, there are only about 67 thousand Hindus in Thailand, 53 thousand in Vietnam, 30 thousand in Cambodia and 3 thousand in Philippines. There are a few Hindus in some other countries of the region including Laos. These are probably expatriate Hindu communities, whose numbers keeping changing.


Southeast Asia, which once formed part of Greater India, is not Hindu any more. Though, most of the countries in the region, except Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines, still remain within the Indian civilizational influence through their Buddhist faith. Indonesia and Malaysia have turned Islamic and Philippines has become Christian. But much Hindu civilizational influence persists even in these countries, especially in Indonesia.

West Asia

Number (‘000) of Hindus in West Asia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
West Asia
3
14
534
805
1,339
Kuwait
0
4
39
55
98
Oman
0
2
90
145
153
Saudi Arabia
0
1
160
240
311
UAE
0
1
125
187
492
Yemen
3
4
80
125
152
Bahrain
0
2
28
39
82
Qatar
0
0
12
15
44
After Southeast Asia, Hindus are present in any significant numbers only in West Asia. In 2010, there are 1.34 million Hindus in this region. Almost all of the Hindus have reached West Asia after 1970. And, almost all of them are in the Arabian Peninsula. Of 1.34 million Hindus in the region, about 500 thousand are in United Arab Emirates and another 300 thousand in Saudi Arabia. Oman and Yemen both have about 150 thousand Hindus. There are also significant number of Hindus in Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. There are hardly any Hindus in other countries of West Asia.


The size of Indian diaspora in West Asia is much larger than the number of Hindus. A large proportion of the Indians in that region are Muslims. Both Indian Hindus and Indian Muslims in West Asia are mainly contract labourers. They have hardly any citizenship rights and unlike the Indian indentured labourers that the British sent to their far-flung colonies, Indian labourers in West Asia cannot expect to be allowed to settle there permanently.

Central Asia

Number (‘000) of Hindus in Central Asia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Central Asia
6
108
101
111
45
Afghanistan
5
100
75
80
11
Iran
1
8
25
31
34
In 2010, there are only about 45 thousand Hindus in Central Asia. Of them, 11 thousand are in Afghanistan and 34 thousand in Iran. In 1970, there were 100 thousand Hindus in Afghanistan. There has been a sharp decline in their number since then. The decline has been particularly sharp during the last decade. In Iran, the number of Hindus has increased from 8 thousand in 1970 to 34 thousand in 2010; but that number is insignificant in the total Iranian population of about 74 million.

East Asia

Number (‘000) of Hindus in East Asia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
East Asia
7
18
36
40
62
China
3
13
15
16
36
Japan
4
5
21
24
24
South Korea
0
0
0
0
2
There are only about 62 thousand Hindus in the whole of East Asia. Of these, 36 thousand are in China, 24 thousand in Japan and 2 thousand in South Korea. There has been some increase in their numbers since 1970. But they do not have a significant presence in any of these highly populous countries of the East Asian region.


Thus, in Asia outside South Asia, the only settled Hindu community with significant numbers is in Indonesia. They are native Hindu and perhaps have no living contact with India. The other significant Hindu community is in West Asia. Hindus in West Asia, of course, are in continuous contact with their compatriots back home, but they have little rights or standing in their host countries.


Hindus beyond Asia

Number of Hindus beyond Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Outside Asia
456
2,099
5,168
6,216
7,095
Africa
279
994
1,940
2,351
2,930
Europe
0
243
1,243
1,416
1,052
North America
1
120
975
1,327
1,835
Latin America
163
527
703
768
764
Oceania
13
214
308
355
513

There are about 7.1 million Hindus in the world beyond Asia. Of them, 2.9 million are in Africa, 1.1 million in Europe, 1.8 million in North America, 0.8 million in Latin America and 0.5 million in Oceania. Everywhere, their absolute numbers have increased since the beginning of the century and also between 1970 and 2010. But, except in Europe and North America, their share in the population of their host continents has either declined or remained unchanged.

Hindus in Africa

Number (‘000) of Hindus in Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Africa
279
994
1,939
2,351
2,930
East Africa
229
556
1,059
1,272
1,612
South Africa
50
433
799
964
1,202
Central Africa
0.0
1.0
64
93
99
West Africa
0.1
3.0
12.0
15.0
9.8
North Africa
 0.0  
 0.0  
4.9
6.3
7.4
Nearly all of the Hindus in Africa are in East and South Africa. In 2010, the two regions have 1.6 and 1.2 million, respectively, of the total 2.9 million Hindus in the continent. Besides these two regions, there are about 99 thousand Hindus in Central Africa, 9.8 thousand in West Africa and 7.4 thousand in North Africa.




East Africa
Number (‘000) of Hindus in East Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
East Africa
229
556
1,059
1,272
1,612
Mauritius
206
379
474
508
574
Tanzania
2
21
210
289
388
Uganda
0
65
132
174
269
Kenya
10
63
120
146
204
Of 1.6 million Hindus in East Africa, 574 thousand are in Mauritius, 388 thousand in Tanzania, 269 thousand in Uganda and 204 thousand in Kenya. In 1900, there were only 229 thousand Hindus in East Africa and of them 206 thousand were in Mauritius. Absolute numbers of Hindus in all these countries have increased in the last 110 years, but their share in the population is miniscule everywhere excepting Mauritius. In Mauritius, they form 44 percent of the population now; in 1900, their share was 54 percent. After Mauritius, Tanzania has the highest proportion of Hindus in its population and it amounts to just 0.9 percent. Almost all of the Hindus in Tanzania have arrived after 1970.

South Africa
Number (‘000) of Hindus in South Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
S. Africa
50
433
799
964
1,202
RSA
50
433
795
959
1,196
Of 1.2 million Hindus in South Africa, all except about 6 thousand are in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). The remaining 6 thousand are distributed in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In RSA, Hindus form 2.39 percent of the population, which is more than double their share of 1.02 percent at the beginning of the twentieth century. In other countries, their share is negligibly small.

Central Africa
Number (‘000) of Hindus in Central Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
C. Africa
0
1
64
93
99
DRC
0
1
64
93
99
There are only 99 thousand Hindus in Central Africa and all of them are in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Hindu presence in this country is of recent origin. There were no Hindus there in 1900 and there were only a thousand of them in 1970.

West Africa
Number (‘000) of Hindus in West Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
W. Africa
0.1
3.0
12.0
15.0
9.8
Ghana
0.0  
1.0
3.2
4.0
4.9
Sierra Leone
0.0  
1.4
2.1
2.5
3.0
Cote d’Ivoire
0.0  
0.5
6.6
8.3
1.6
Of 9.8 thousand Hindus in West Africa, 4.9 thousand are in Ghana, 3 thousand in Sierra Leone and 1.6 thousand in Cote d’Ivoire. In Cote d’Ivoire, there were 8.3 thousand Hindus in 2000. The sudden decline of Hindus in that country has reduced their number in the region from 15 thousand in 2000 to 9.8 thousand in 2010.


North Africa
Of 7.4 thousand Hindus in North Africa, 5.7 thousand are in Libya and the rest are distributed across Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan.

Thus in the African continent, there is a significant Hindu presence only in Mauritius and at a much lower level in the South African Republic. In other countries, there are only some recent expatriates; most of them have gone there after 1970.


Hindus in Europe

Number (‘000) of Hindus in Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Europe
0.06
243
1,243
1,416
1,052
North
0.01
220
379
433
692
West
0.00
23
182
213
282
East
0.00
0.0
680
766
48
South
0.05
0.3
2.4
3.1
30
Of about 1.1 million Hindus in Europe, 692 thousand are in North Europe and 282 thousand in West Europe. There are also 30 thousand Hindus in South Europe compared to 3.1 thousand in 2000. In East Europe, there were about 766 thousand Hindus in 2000, but that number has declined to 48 thousand now. Because of this, total number of Hindus in Europe has declined by about 360 thousand in the last decade.


There were few Hindus in Europe in 1900
Hindus began to arrive in North Europe in the middle of the twentieth century and in West and East Europe towards the ending decades of that century. There have not been many Hindus in South Europe in all this period. And there were almost none in any part of Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. According to the data we are using, there were only 60 Hindus in Europe in 1900. Of them, 10 were in North Europe, all of them in Channel Islands and 50 in South Europe, of them 20 in Gibraltar and 30 in Malta.

North Europe
Number (‘000) of Hindus in North Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
N Europe
0
220
379
433
692
UK
0
220
375
429
662
Sweden
0
0
0
0
13
Denmark
0
0
3
4
10
Ireland
0
0
0
0
4.7
Of 692 thousand in Europe in 2010, 662 thousand are in the United Kingdom, where they form 1.1 percent of the population. Their number and share have been rising since 1970. There are only a few Hindus elsewhere in Europe. There are 13 thousand of them in Sweden, 10 thousand in Denmark and 4.7 thousand in Ireland. The remaining about 2 thousand Hindus are spread over several other countries of North Europe.


West Europe
Number (‘000) of Hindus in West Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
W Europe
0
23
182
213
282
Netherlands
0
1
80
92
107
Germany
0
0
45
51
93
France
0
20
40
45
47
Switzerland
0
2
16
23
24
There are 282 thousand Hindus in West Europe. Of them 107 thousand are in Netherlands, where they form 0.64 percent of the population. This is the second highest number and share of Hindus in any country of Europe after the UK. There are 93 thousand Hindus in Germany, 47 thousand in France and 24 thousand in Switzerland. Their share in the population of Switzerland is 0.31 percent and it is 0.11 and 0.08 percent, respectively, in Germany and France. Of the remaining about 10 thousand Hindus in West Europe, 7.1 thousand are in Austria and 3.2 thousand in Belgium.

East Europe
Number (‘000) of Hindus in East Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
E Europe
0
0
680
766
48
Russia
0
0
680
766
43
Ukraine
0
0
0
0
5
There are only 48 thousand Hindus in East Europe, 43 thousand of them in the Russian Federation and 5 thousand in Ukraine. In 2000, there were 766 thousand Hindus in Russia and 680 thousand in 1990. It seems, Hindus have quit the Russian Federation, but have started going to Ukraine, during the last decade.

South Europe
Number (‘000) of Hindus in South Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
S Europe
0.05
0.3
2.4
3.1
30.3
Greece
 0 
0
0
0
 15.0
Italy
0
0
2.0
2.4
7.9
Portugal
0
0
0
0
 6.4
Of 30.3 thousand Hindus in South Europe, 15 thousand are in Greece, 7.9 thousand in Italy and 6.4 thousand in Portugal. The remaining 1 thousand Hindus are in Gibraltar and Andorra. In 1970, there were only about 300 Hindus in South Europe; they were almost all in Gibraltar excepting a few in Malta. Italy acquired 2 thousand Hindus in 1990. Hindu presence in Greece and Portugal is of very recent origin.

Thus in Europe, Hindus have a significant presence only in the UK. Their share is perhaps non-negligible in Netherlands and Switzerland. In 1990 and 2000, Hindus had a presence of about 0.5 percent in the Russian Federation also. But there are only a few Hindus left in Russia now. Hindu presence in other countries of Europe is miniscule.

Hindus in North America

Number (‘000) of Hindus in North America

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
N America
1.0
120
975
1,327
1,835
USA
1.0
100
750
1,032
1,445
Canada
0.0
20
225
295
390
There are 1.8 million Hindus in North America. Most of them have arrived after 1970, when immigration of non-Europeans into the USA was somewhat relaxed. There were only 120 thousand Hindus in the continent in 1970 and just 1 thousand in 1900. Of 1.8 million Hindus in the continent now, 1.4 million are in the USA and about 400 thousand in Canada. They form about half a percent of the population of USA and 1.2 percent of Canada. Their share in these two countries was less than 0.1 percent in 1970.

Thus North America (including both USA and Canada) has been one of the major destinations of Hindu emigration of recent decades.


Hindus in Latin America

Number (‘000) of Hindus in Latin America

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
L America
163
527
703
768
767
Caribbean
72
231
335
364
382
S America
91
292
350
383
367
C America
 0 
5
17.5
20.8
18.3
Of 764 thousand Hindus in Latin America, 382 thousand are in the Caribbean and 367 thousand in South America. There are only 18 thousand Hindus in Central America. Hindu presence in the Caribbean and South America is older; Hindus in Central America have all arrived during the latter half of the twentieth century.


The Caribbean
Number (‘000) of Hindus in the Caribbean

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
The Caribbean
72
231
335
364
382
Trinidad &Tobago
69
221
274
295
326
Cuba
0
3
21
23
23
Jamaica
2
6
27
31
16
Of 382 thousand Hindus in the Caribbean, 326 thousand are in Trinidad & Tobago, where they form about a quarter of the population. They had a similar, though somewhat higher share in 1900 also. As we have seen in an earlier note, this is an older Hindu community of the descendants of indentured labourers from India. Of the remaining 56 thousand Hindus in the Caribbean, 23 thousand are in Cuba, 16 thousand in Jamaica and 3.3 thousand in Puerto Rico.


South America
Number (‘000) of Hindus in South America

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
South America
91
292
350
383
367
Guyana
71
227
255
280
227
Suriname
20
60
73
74
108
Of 367 thousand Hindus in South America, 227 thousand are in Guyana, where they form 30 percent of the population. There are another 108 thousand Hindus in Suriname, where they have a share of about 21 percent in the population. Both these countries are in the vicinity of Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. And like Trinidad and Tobago, Hindus in both these countries are descendants of indentured labourers from India. Of the remaining about 32 thousand Hindus in South America, about 10 thousand are in Brazil, 7 thousand in Argentina, 11 thousand in Columbia and about 4 thousand in French Guiana. Their share in all these countries is negligibly small.

Central America
Of 18 thousand Hindus in Central America, about 10 thousand are in Mexico and 6 thousand in tiny Belize. They form nearly 2 percent of the population in the latter. There were also about 8 thousand Hindus in Panama in 1990 and 9 thousand in 2000; that number has now declined to 1.2 thousand. The Hindu communities of Central America are all of recent origin. There were no Hindus in the region in 1900 and 5 thousand Hindus in 1970 were all in Panama.

Thus, the only significant Hindu presence in Latin America is in the compact region of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Suriname. There are not many Hindus in other countries where they form unstable expatriate communities.


Hindus in Oceania

Number (‘000) of Hindus in Oceania

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Oceania
13
214
308
355
513
Fiji
13
210
244
272
239
Australia
0
0
46
60
185
New Zealand
0
4
18
22
89
Of 513 thousand Hindus in Oceania, 239 thousand are in Fiji, where they form about 28 percent of the population. As we have discussed in an earlier note, their share has declined to this level from more than 40 percent in 1970. In the last decade, there has been a decline in their absolute numbers also. Nevertheless, Hindus in Fiji are a relatively older community formed of the descendants of indentured labourers. The remaining Hindus in Oceania are in Australia and New Zealand and nearly all of them have arrived after 1970, when there were only 4 thousand Hindus in New Zealand and none in Australia. Number of Hindus in Australia and New Zealand has grown during the last decade, probably because of the more relaxed immigration policies.


Four Groups of Hindu Diaspora

Hindus in the world beyond South Asia thus form four distinct groups. In the first group are native inhabitants of Southeast Asia, who became part of the Hindu civilizational sphere several centuries ago. The only significant such group of Hindus left in the region now is in Bali and some other islands of Indonesia. Their number there is declining sharply; there has been a particularly steep decline during the last decade. The second group is that of the descendants of indentured labourers that were taken to different parts of the world in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Hindus of this group now hold a significant share in the populations of Malaysia in Southeast Asia; Mauritius in Africa; Tobago & Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname in Latin America; and Fiji in Oceania. The third group is of largely blue-collar workers who have been migrating to various countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Finally, there are the relatively recent migrants to the United Kingdom and a few other countries of North and West Europe, to the USA and Canada in North America, and to Australia and New Zealand in Oceania. This group comprises largely white-collar professionals. Some of the immigrants in this category may also be engaged in trade and blue-collar work.

Table below gives the region and country wise breakup of different groups of the Hindu diaspora of about 15.5 million outside South Asia.


Region and origin wise breakup of Hindu Diaspora, 2011
Group
Description
Group Total
Region wise numbers
Regions and countries
Group 1
Indigenous Hindus
3.9 mn
3.9 mn
Mostly in Indonesia. This number is shrinking.
Group 2
Descendants of indentured labourers
7.0 mn
3.0 mn
Southeast Asia, mainly Malaysia, Singapore and Myanmar
3.0 mn
Africa, mainly in Mauritius, Kenya, Uganda and South African Republic
0.75 mn
Tobago & Trinidad, Suriname and Guyana


0.24 mn
Fiji (Oceania)
Group 3
Mainly recent blue-collar workers
1.3 mn
1.3 mn
Arabian Peninsula in West Asia
Group 4
Mainly recent white-collar professional workers
3.1 mn
1.0
Europe, mainly UK and Netherlands
1.4
USA
0.4
Canada
0.3
Australia and New Zealand


Distribution of Sikhs across the World

Number of Sikhs in different Continents of the World
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Total
2,962
10,618
19,332
23,258
23,927
South Asia
2,945
10,318
18,519
22,261
22,386
Outside South Asia
17
300
813
997
1,541
Rest of Asia
15
61
126
159
302
Beyond Asia
2
239
687
838
1,239
Percent share of different Continents in the Sikhs of the World
South Asia
99.42
97.18
95.79
95.71
93.56
Rest of Asia
0.50
0.57
0.65
0.69
1.26
Beyond Asia
0.08
2.25
3.55
3.60
5.18

Every fifteenth or sixteenth Sikh is outside South Asia
Proportion of Sikhs outside their homeland of South Asia is considerably higher than that of Hindus. Out of 23.93 million Sikhs in the World, 22.39 million are in South Asia and 1.54 million Sikhs are away from South Asia. Of the latter, 0.30 million are in the rest of Asia and 1.24 million in the world beyond Asia. Thus 6.44 percent of all Sikhs—meaning every 15th or 16th Sikh—is outside the Indian region. This is to be compared with 1.63 percent of Hindus who are away.

The proportion has risen during the last decade
The Table above shows a considerable rise in the number and proportion of Sikhs away from South Asia during the last decade. There were less than a million Sikhs in the world beyond South Asia in 2000; that number in 2010 has risen to 1.54 million. Proportion of Sikhs away from South Asia has correspondingly increased from 4.29 to 6.44 percent.

Data shows slow growth of total Sikh population
A remarkable aspect of the data in the Table above is the slow growth of Sikhs during the last decade. Their population in the world has grown by less than 3 percent; the population of Hindus in the world has grown by nearly 17 percent in this decade. More interestingly, of the accretion of 669 million to the population of Sikhs during 2000-10, only 125 million has happened in South Asia and the remaining 544 million in the rest of the world. Data of the Census of India indeed shows a sharp lowering of the growth of Sikhs in India, which we have described in an earlier note. But the growth according to the census figures is not quite as low as indicated by the numbers here. However, these numbers do suggest increased out-migration of Sikhs from India.


Sikhs in South Asia

Sikhs in South Asia are confined to India
Within South Asia, Sikhs are confined almost entirely to India. Of 22.39 million Sikhs in South Asia in 2010, 22.30 million are in India. There are only 83 thousand Sikhs in other countries of South Asia; of these 45 thousand are in Pakistan, 25 thousand in Bangladesh, about 10 thousand in Nepal and 3 thousand in Sri Lanka.

Number of Sikhs in different countries of South Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
South Asia
2,945
10,318
18,519
22,261
22,386
India
2,180
10,287
18,450
22,183
22,303
Outside India
765
31
69
79
83
Pakistan
760
0.0
2.0
2.0
45
Bangladesh
 1.0
 6.0
 18.0
 21.3
 24.5
Nepal
 0.0  
0.0  
7.1
8.4
10.5
Percent share of different countries in Sikhs of South Asia
India
74.02
99.70
99.63
99.65
99.63
Outside India
25.98
0.30
0.37
0.35
0.37
Pakistan
25.81
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.20

But a quarter of the Sikhs were in what now forms Pakistan
At the beginning of the century, more than a quarter of the Sikhs in South Asia were in what now forms Pakistan. Partition of India in 1947 thus had a more calamitous effect on the Sikh community. A quarter of that community was displaced from their homeland. Absolute number of Hindus displaced may have been larger, but they formed a much smaller proportion of the total Hindus. This uprooting of a large proportion of the community is partly responsible for the Sikh diaspora being larger than the Hindu diaspora in relative terms. People who are uprooted from their native lands tend to scatter far and wide. We shall discuss, at a later stage, relative impact of the Partition on Hindus and Sikhs in greater detail using the data of Indian censuses.


Sikhs in the Rest of Asia

There are a total of about 300 thousand Sikhs in the regions of Asia other than South Asia. This number is small compared to more than 8 million Hindus in the rest of Asia. But unlike the Hindus, whose number in Asia beyond South Asia has declined drastically in the last decade, the number of Sikhs has nearly doubled between 2000 and 2010.

Number of Sikhs in other regions of Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Rest of Asia
14.9
60.8
126.4
159.5
302.5
Southeast Asia
14.1
55.0
68.6
79.4
156.7
West Asia
0.4
0.1
47.1
67.2
109.4
Central Asia
0.0
5.0
10.0
12.1
13.2
East Asia
0.4
0.7
0.7
0.8
23.2

Sikhs in Southeast Asia
Number (‘000) of Sikhs in Southeast Asia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
SE Asia
14.1
55.0
68.6
79.4
156.7
Malaysia
4.0
20.0
30.0
36.8
47.1
Singapore
2.5
20.0
14.0
15.7
22.3
Thailand
1.0
10.0
17.0
19.0
56.0
Philippines
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
23.9
Of about 157 thousand Sikhs in Southeast Asia, 47 thousand are in Malaysia, 22 thousand in Singapore, 56 thousand in Thailand and 24 thousand in Philippines. During the last decade, number of Sikhs has increased shrply in Thailand and Philippines. In 2010, there are more Sikhs than Hindus in Philippines and their number is comparable to that of Hindus in Thailand. The remaining about 7 thousand Sikhs in the region are in Indonesia and Myanmar. In the latter, their number has declined from about 8 thousand in 2000 to 1.4 thousand now. In Indonesia, there were no Sikhs in 2000; there are 6 thousand in 2010.

Sikhs in West Asia
Number (‘000) of Sikhs in West Asia

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
W Asia
0.4
0.1
47.1
67.2
109.4
Arabia
0.0
0.0
47.0
67.1
93.2
Cyprus
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.8
Iraq
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.3
Of 109 thousand Sikhs in West Asia, 93 thousand are in the Arabian Peninsula. But, surprisingly, some Sikhs have reached Iraq and Cyprus also during the last decade. There are no Hindus in these two countries. Overall in West Asia, the presence of Sikhs is not very remarkable, when compared with nearly 1.4 million Hindus there.


Sikhs in East and Central Asia
There are about 13 thousand Sikhs in Central Asia and 23 thousand in East Asia. In Central Asia, 3.5 thousand of the Sikhs are in Afghanistan and 9 thousand in Iran. There are also about 800 Sikhs in Kazakhstan. In East Asia, there are 20 thousand Sikhs in China, about 2 thousand in Japan and a thousand in South Korea. There were almost no Sikhs in East Asia and in Kazakhstan in 2000.


Sikhs beyond Asia

Number of Sikhs beyond Asia (in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Outside Asia
2.4
239
687
838
1,239
Africa
2.2
21
46
53
73
Europe
0
200
228
239
502
North America
0
8
400
528
607
Latin America
0
0
0
0
7
Oceania
0.2
5
13
18
50


Sikhs are largely concentrated in Europe and North America
The Sikh diaspora is largely concentrated in Europe and North America. Of 1.54 million Sikhs outside South Asia, 1.24 million are outside the Asian continent and of them 1.11 million are in Europe and North America.

There are only a few Sikhs in Africa
There are only 73 thousand Sikhs in Africa, compared to nearly 3 million Hindus. Of the Sikhs in Africa, 37 thousand are in Kenya, 14 thousand in Tanzania and 11 thousand in South African Republic. Almost all of the Sikh presence in Africa has happened after 1900. In 1900, there were only 2.2 thousand Sikhs in the continent; of them, 2 thousand were in Kenya and about 2 hundred in South African Republic.

Even fewer in Oceania
Another 49.6 thousand Sikhs are in Oceania. Of them, 36.5 thousand are in Australia, 8.7 thousand in New Zealand and 4.4 thousand in Fiji. Number of Sikhs in Australia has doubled during the last decade. In New Zealand, there were only a few Sikhs in 2000.

And almost none in Latin America
There are only about 7.2 thousand Sikhs in Latin America. Of them, 5.7 thousand are in Mexico, 1.2 thousand in Argentina and about 250 in Panama. There were no Sikhs in Latin America up to 2000.


Sikhs in Europe

Sikhs in Europe are largely in UK
Number (‘000) of Sikhs in Europe

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Europe
0.0
200
228
239
502
UK
 0.0 
 200
 225
 235
 412
Elsewhere
 0.0 
 0.0 
 3.2
 3.7
 90
Two thirds of about a million Hindus in Europe are in the United Kingdom. Sikhs are even more concentrated in that country. Of 502 thousand Sikhs in Europe in 2010, 412 are in the United Kingdom. This is to be compared with 662 thousand Hindus there. In 2000, there were only 239 thousand Sikhs in Europe and of them 235 thousand were in the UK.


Their number in rest of Europe has increased recently
During the last decade, the number of Sikhs in Europe has seen a sudden rise from 239 to 502 thousand. A large part of this rise is contributed by the United Kingdom, where their number has gone up from 235 thousand in 2000 to 412 thousand in 2010. But, there were only 3.7 thousand Sikhs in the rest of Europe until 2000. That number has increased to 90 thousand.

Germany, Italy and Netherlands have acquired some Sikhs now
In 2000, only Sikhs in Europe outside the UK were in Germany. Their number there has increased from 3.3 thousand in 2000 to about 25 thousand now. Of the remaining 65 thousand Sikhs in Europe, 24 thousand are in Italy, where their number now is thrice that of Hindus. There are another 13 thousand Sikhs in Netherlands, 5.4 thousand in Greece, 5.4 thousand in Belgium, 8 thousand in Ukraine and about 3 thousand in Russia.

Sikhs in North America

Number (‘000) of Sikhs in North America

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
N America
0
8
400
528
607
USA
0  
1
160
234
279
Canada
0  
7
240
294
328
There are 607 thousand Sikhs in North America in 2010. Of them, 279 thousand are in the USA and 328 thousand in Canada. This is to be compared with 1.4 million Hindus in the USA and 400 thousand in Canada. Number of Sikhs in Canada is comparable to that of Hindus. The UK and Canada thus seem to be particularly favourable destinations for Sikh emigrants. Sikh migration into North America thus is of even more recent origin than that of Hindus. In 1970, there were 120 thousand Hindus in North America and there were only 8 thousand Sikhs. In 1900, there were few Hindus or Sikhs in the continent.

Sikh diaspora is bigger but less widespread
Thus Sikh diaspora is indeed bigger than the Hindu diaspora in relative terms. While less than 2 percent of Hindus are outside South Asia, more than 6 percent of Sikhs are away. But, of 1.54 million Sikhs outside South Asia, 1.02 million are concentrated in just three countries: the UK, Canada and the USA. There are not many other countries of the world with significant presence of Sikhs. Sikhs in Europe and the USA are also mainly white-collar professionals. But the number also includes some cultivators and traders.


Distribution of Jains across the World

Number of Jains in different Continents of the World
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Total
1,323
2,618
3,868
4,218
5,316
South Asia
1,320
2,585
3,804
4,142
5,093
Outside South Asia
3.3
33.3
64.5
76.1
223.5
Rest of Asia
0.1
0.5
2.8
3.1
6.2
Beyond Asia
3.2
32.8
61.6
73.0
217.3
Percent share of different Continents in the Jains of the World
South Asia
99.75
98.73
98.33
98.19
95.80
Rest of Asia
0.01
0.02
0.07
0.07
0.12
Beyond Asia
0.24
1.25
1.59
1.73
4.08

In relative terms, Jain diaspora is bigger than Hindu diaspora
Of 5.3 million Jains in the world, 5.1 million are in South Asia. Only 223 thousand Jains are outside South Asia. That still amounts to 4.20 percent of their total number. This is much larger than the proportion of 1.63 percent for the Hindus. Thus, in relative terms, the size of Jain diaspora, like that of the Sikh diaspora, is larger than the Hindu diaspora.

Jain diaspora has grown suddenly during 2001-2010
During the last decade, there has been a significant rise in the Jain diaspora, both in absolute numbers and as a proportion of their total numbers. There were only 76 thousand Jains outside South Asia in 2000 and they formed 1.81 percent of the total Jains. That number has gone up to more than 223 thousand in one decade. This is probably because of the recent rush among the educated middle class Indians to leave India in search of better financial and professional prospects elsewhere.

In South Asia, Jains are largely confined to India
Within South Asia, Jains are confined almost entirely to India. There were no Jains outside India in 1900, not even in Pakistan and Bangladesh that formed part of India then. In 2010, there are only 7.5 thousand Jains outside India; all of them are in Nepal.

Number of Jains in different countries of South Asia
(in thousands)
1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
South Asia
1,320
2,585
3,804
4,142
5,093
India
1,320
2,582
3,800
4,137
5,085
Outside India
0.0
2.5
4.0
4.8
7.5
Nepal
0.0
2.5
4.0
4.8
7.5

Only a few Jains are in other regions of Asia
There are 6.2 thousand Jains in other regions of Asia. Of these 2.3 thousand are in Malaysia, 2.4 thousand in Myanmar and 1.5 thousand in Japan.

Their number in Africa is considerable
Number (‘000) of Jains in Africa

1900
1970
1990
2000
2010
Africa
3.2
37.5
56.6
66.1
94.4
Kenya
3.0
31.0
48.0
55.3
78.4
Tanzania
0.1
0.8
6.2
7.8
9.8
Uganda
0.0
5.7
1.7
2.0
3.1
SAR
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
Of 217 thousand Jains beyond Asia, 94 thousand are in Africa. Of them, 78 thousand are in Kenya and about 10 thousand in Tanzania. There has been a considerable increase in the number of Jains in Kenya during the last decade. But Kenya is the only country, where there has been some presence of Jains since 1900. There were 3 thousand Jains in Kenya at the beginning of the twentieth century; besides that there were only about a hundred Jains in Tanzania.

There are not many Jains in Europe
There are only 18.8 thousand Jains in Europe. Of them 18 thousand are in the United Kingdom and about 800 in Belgium. There were no Jains in Europe in 2000.

Nearly half of the Jain diaspora is in North America
The remaining about 100 thousand Jains are in North America. This is a recent growth. In 2000, there were only 7 thousand Jains in the continent. Of nearly 100 thousand Jains in 2010, 85.4 thousand are in the USA and 14.3 thousand in Canada.

There are only a few Jains in Latin America and Oceania
There are also 3 thousand Jains in Oceania. Of them, 1.6 thousand are in Australia and 1.4 thousand in Fiji. There were no Jains in Oceania in 2000. There are 1.4 thousand in Suriname in Latin America. There were none in 2000.

Like the Sikh diaspora, Jain diaspora is bigger but even less widespread
In relative terms, Jain diaspora is bigger than the Hindu diaspora. But Jains are confined to a few countries. Of 223 thousand Jains outside South Asia, 100 thousand are in North America, mostly in the USA. Another 94 thousand Jains are in Africa, mostly in Kenya. Jain diaspora in the USA seems to comprise largely white-collar professionals. In Africa, they are likely to be largely traders and entrepreneurs.


Conclusion


1. Hindus are largely confined to their homeland of South Asia. Of 949 million Hindus in the world in 2010, only 15.5 million are outside South Asia. Of them, 8.4 million are in the rest of Asia and only 7.1 million in the world beyond Asia. Hindu diaspora thus forms only 1.63 percent of the total Hindus in the world.

Hindus within South Asia
2. Within South Asia, Hindus are getting confined to the current truncated boundaries of India. In 1900, 91.4 percent of the Hindus in South Asia were in the area that now constitutes India. In 2010, 95.8 percent of the Hindus are within India.
3. This decline of Hindus outside India is mainly because of the large-scale expulsion of Hindus from what now form Pakistan and Bangladesh. But between 1900 and 2010, the Hindu share has shrunk in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan also.

Hindus in Southeast Asia
4. Of 8.4 million Hindus in regions of Asia other than South Asia, 6.9 million are in Southeast Asia and of them 3.9 million are in Indonesia.
5. Number of Hindus in Indonesia has declined sharply during the last decade from 7.2 million in 2000 to 3.9 million in 2010. Number of Hindus in Southeast Asia has therefore declined from 10.2 to 6.9 million in the last decade.
6. Of the remaining about 3 million Hindus in Southeast Asia, 1.8 million are in Malaysia, where they form 6.3 percent of the population and about 270 thousand in Singapore, where they have a share of 5.3 percent. Share of Hindus in both of these countries has declined since 1900.
7. Another about 800 thousand Hindus are in Myanmar, where their share has declined from 2.7 percent in 1900 to 1.7 percent in 2010. There are a few Hindus in Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia also.

Hindus in West Asia
8. Besides Southeast Asia, Hindus have a significant presence only in West Asia. In 2010, of 8.4 million Hindus in the regions of Asia other than South Asia, 1.3 million are in West Asia and all of them are in the peninsular Arabia.
9. Hindu presence in Arabia is a consequence of the recent movement of Indian workers to this region. There were only 14 thousand Hindus in this region in 1970.

Hindus in East and Central Asia
10. There are only 45 Hindus in Central Asia and 62 thousand in East Asia. Their number in Central Asia was somewhat larger in 2000.

Hindus in Africa
11. Of 7.1 million Hindus beyond Asia, 2.9 million are in Africa. Of them 1.6 million are in East Africa and 1.2 million in South Africa. There are only a few Hindus elsewhere.
12. Hindus in East Africa are almost all in Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. In Mauritius, they have a significant presence of 44 percent. Elsewhere their share is small.

Hindus in Europe
13. There are only about 1.0 million Hindus in Europe. Their number was larger at about 1.4 million in 2000. But in 1970, there were merely 240 thousand in Europe, and there were almost none in 1900.
14. Of the Hindus in Europe, nearly two-thirds are in the United Kingdom. And the rest are largely in Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy and Greece. In 1970, the number of Hindus was negligibly small everywhere except in the UK.
15. Up to 2000, there were nearly 0.8 million Hindus in Russia. But that number has shrunk to just 43 thousand in 2010.
16. In 2010, the share of Hindus in the European countries is significant only in the UK and to some extent Netherlands.

Hindus in North America
17.  A quarter of the Hindus beyond Asia are in North America. In 2010, there are 1.4 million Hindus in the United States of America and about 390 thousand in Canada.
18. Hindu presence in North America is a recent phenomenon. In 1970, there were only 120 thousand Hindus in North America and there were nearly none in 1900.

Hindus in Latin America
19. There are 767 thousand Hindus in Latin America. Nearly all of them are in Trinidad & Tobago and in the neighbouring Guyana and Suriname.

Hindus in Oceania
20. There are about half a million Hindus in Oceania. Of them, 239 thousand are in Fiji and 274 thousand in Australia and New Zealand. Hindus have reached the latter two countries after 1970. Their presence in Fiji, where they have a share of 28 percent in the population, is older.

Four Groups of Hindu Diaspora
21. Hindu diaspora in the world can be divided into four distinct groups, who inhabit distinctly different parts of the world. 
22. First, there are the native Hindus of Southeast Asia. They are now confined largely to Bali and number about 4 million.
23. Second, there are the descendants of indentured labourers who were taken to far-flung colonies by the British. These number about 7 million. Of them 3 million are in Malaysia, Singapore and Myanmar of Southeast Asia; another 3 million are in Mauritius, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa; about 0.75 million are in Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana and Suriname of the Caribbean and South Africa; and, about 0.25 million are in Fiji.
24. Third, there are the recent blue-collar expatriate workers. They number about 1.3 million and nearly all of them are in the Arabian Peninsula.
25. The fourth group comprises professional white-collar workers of even more recent origin. They number about 3 million. Of them 1 million are in Europe, 1.4 million in the USA, 0.4 million in Canada and 0.3 million in Australia and New Zealand. Some of these may also be engaged in trade and blue-collar work.

Sikh Diaspora
26. Of 23.9 million Sikhs in the world, 1.5 million are outside South Asia. This amounts to 6.44 percent of the Sikhs being away from their homeland. Thus every 15th or 16th Sikh in the world is an immigrant.
27. Of 1.5 million Sikhs outside South Asia, about 300 thousand are in the rest of Asia. And of them, 157 thousand are in Southeast Asia and 109 thousand in West Asia.
28. In Southeast Asia, almost all of the Sikhs are in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.
29. In West Asia, 93 thousand of 109 thousand Sikhs are in Arabia. But there are also about 10 thousand Sikhs in Cyprus and 6 thousand in Iraq.
30. Of 1.29 million Sikhs outside Asia, 502 thousand are in Europe and 607 thousand in North America.
31. Of the Sikhs in Europe, 412 thousand are in the UK and 62 thousand in Germany, Italy and Netherlands. There has been a considerable increase in the number of Sikhs in both the UK and other countries during the last decade.
32. Of 607 thousand Sikhs in North America, 279 thousand are in the USA and 328 thousand in Canada.
33. Sikhs form around 1 percent of the population in both Canada and the United Kingdom.
34. Thus, though Sikh diaspora is bigger than Hindu diaspora in relative terms, the Sikhs are not as widespread as the Hindus. Of 1.54 million Sikhs outside South Asia, 1.02 million are concentrated in just three countries: the UK, Canada and the USA.

Jain Diaspora
35. Of 5.3 million Jains in the world, about 223 thousand are outside South Asia. That makes the Jain diaspora also bigger than the Hindu diaspora in relative terms. Only 1.63 percent of the Hindus are away from South Asia; for Jains, that ratio is 4.20 percent.
36. There has been a sudden increase in the Jain diaspora during the last decade. In 2000, 1.81 percent of the Jains were away from South Asia.
38. About 94 thousand of Jains are in Africa; of them, 78 thousand are in Kenya and the remaining 16 thousand are in Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa.
39. Almost all of the remaining 123 thousand Jains are in just three countries of the world. There are 85 thousand Jains in the USA, 18 thousand in the UK and 14 thousand in Canada.
40. Thus though Jain diaspora is bigger than the Hindu diaspora in relative terms and has seen considerable expansion in the last decade, yet the Jains are less widespread than even the Sikhs. 

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