Thursday, 14 July 2016

Religion Data of Census 2011: XXV Urban UP

Muslims dominate the Urban Demography of Uttar Pradesh


In our earlier note on Uttar Pradesh, we noticed that the overall share of Muslims and growth in their share is not very high outside a pocket of eight districts in the western UP. In that note, we also indicated that the share and growth of urban Muslims in this pocket is considerably higher than in the total population. The issue of the exodus of Hindus from some of the towns of this pocket, especially towns like Kairana and Kandhla, has suddenly acquired salience. In view of this, we present further details of the religious demography of urban Uttar Pradesh.

Share of Muslims in the urban population of the State is much higher than their average share in the total population. They form 32.2 percent of the urban population, while they form less than 20 percent of the total and only 15.6 percent of the rural population. What is even more important is that they have an overwhelming presence in several towns. Muslims are in a majority in 231 of the total 915 towns counted in the State in 2011. Among these 231 towns, there are 15 where the share of Muslims is above 90 percent, 37 where their share is between 80 and 90 percent and another 47 where they form 70 to 80 percent of the population.

Of the 231 Muslim-majority towns in the State, 103 are in the 8 districts of West UP where the Muslim presence is otherwise high. But the remaining 128 are spread over the whole State, and there are Muslims-majority towns in even those districts where their overall presence is very low. There are urban pockets of very high Muslim presence in almost every part of the State. Therefore, their influence in the State is much deeper and more widespread than what is indicated by their share in the total population of the State.

The share of Muslims in the towns of Uttar Pradesh has been growing quite rapidly. In 1981, when there were a total of 607 towns in the State, the number of Muslim-majority towns was 101; that number has now expanded to 231.

In many towns, the increase in the share of Muslims during the last three or four decades has been very sharp; in several instances, this has implied a decline in the absolute number, and not merely the share, of the Indian Religionists. Such decline usually implies large-scale out-migration of the latter from those towns.


In the following we describe different dimensions of this high and growing Muslim influence in the urban areas of Uttar Pradesh.


Total and Urban Muslims in Uttar Pradesh


Total and Urban Muslims in UP, 1971-2011
Total Pop
Urban Pop
Total M
Urban M
1971
8,38,78,581
1,16,53,740
1,33,28,316
35,53,060
1981
10,51,74,283
1,87,49,979
1,71,83,263
55,06,875
1991
13,20,61,653
2,59,71,831
2,34,04,386
83,23,864
2001
16,61,97,921
3,45,39,582
3,07,40,158
1,10,73,861
2011
19,98,12,341
4,44,95,063
3,84,83,967
1,43,27,910

In the Table above, we have compiled the total and urban population of Uttar Pradesh and the number of total and urban Muslims in the State as counted in the Censuses from 1971 to 2011. These numbers indicate that:

Muslims are much more urban than others

Urban Ratio in Percent

Total
Muslim
Others
1971
13.89
26.66
9.66
1981
17.83
32.05
12.59
1991
19.67
35.57
13.36
2001
20.78
36.02
14.12
2011
22.27
37.23
15.10
Muslims in Uttar Pradesh are much more urban than others. Of 4.45 crore Muslims counted in 2011, 1.43 crore are in the urban areas. Urban ratio of the Muslims thus works out to be 37.2 percent; for the rest of the population, this ratio is only 15.1 percent. This gap between the urban ratio of Muslims and others has been persisting and widening for long; in 1971, nearly 27 percent of the Muslims were urban, while the urban ratio for others was less than 10 percent.



Share of Muslims in the urban population is much higher

%Muslim Share

Urban
Rural
1971
30.49
13.53
1981
29.37
13.51
1991
32.05
14.21
2001
32.06
14.94
2011
32.20
15.55
Consequently, the share of Muslims in the urban areas of the State is much higher than their relatively low presence indicated by the total numbers. In 2011, they have an average share of 32.2 percent in the towns, compared to only 15.6 percent in the villages. With this high level of average presence in the urban areas of the State, it is natural that they form a majority in a large number of towns of the State, as we see below.



Muslims are a majority in the urban areas of 8 districts
Districts with Muslim majority
in the Urban Population
District
%UM
%TM
Rampur
69.06
50.57
Bijnor
67.48
43.04
Jyotiba Phule Nagar
65.63
40.78
Bahraich
59.77
33.53
Mau
57.53
19.43
Moradabad
54.65
47.12
Saharanpur
51.28
41.95
Ambedkar Nagar
51.09
16.75
UM: Share of Muslims in the urban pop.
TM: Share of Muslims in the total pop.
While Muslims form a majority of the total population in only Rampur district, they have a presence of more than half in the urban population of as many as 8 districts in the State. Five of these are in the west UP pocket of high Muslim presence. The other three are: Bahraich, where the share of Muslims in the total population is 33.5 percent, and Mau and Ambedkar Nagar, where Muslim presence in the total is far lower at 19.4 and 16.8 percent, respectively.







They have a share of 40-50 percent in another 13 districts
Districts with Muslim majority
in the Urban Population
District
%UM
%TM
Balrampur
49.34
37.51
Shrawasti
49.24
30.79
Muzaffarnagar
48.98
41.30
Bara Banki
48.56
22.61
Azamgarh
47.31
15.58
Bareilly
47.20
34.54
Budaun
47.16
21.47
Sitapur
44.53
19.93
Sant Ravidas Nagar
43.75
12.92
Pilibhit
43.17
24.11
Gonda
40.73
19.76
Kanshiram Nagar
40.62
14.88
Shahjahanpur
40.37
17.55
UM: Share of Muslims in the urban pop.
TM: Share of Muslims in the total pop.
There are another 13 districts in the State, where the share of Muslims in the urban population is between 40 to 50 percent. Two of the eight districts in the West UP pocket of high Muslim presence—Muzaffarnagar, and Bareilly—fall in this category. But, there are also several districts in this list, where the Muslim presence in the total population is low. In Azamgarh, Sitapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar (Bhadohi), Gonda, Kanshiram Nagar and Shahjahanpur, Muslim presence in the district as a whole is less than 20 percent, yet their share in the urban areas is above 40 percent. They have a presence of between 30 and 40 percent in another 16 districts. Thus in more than half of the districts of Uttar Pradesh, Muslims have a share of at least 30 percent in the urban population.








Districts with high urban Muslim share are spread across the State
In our earlier note on Uttar Pradesh, we had seen that outside the West UP pocket, there are no districts with Muslim presence of 40 percent or above, and there are only 3 districts outside this pocket with Muslim share of above 30 percent. But, as seen in the Tables above and the Map here, there are many more districts with Muslim presence of thirty percent or more in the urban population, and these districts are spread widely across the whole of the State.




Muslims form a majority or near majority in the urban population of half of the sub-districts
%M
Urban
Number
of Taluks
>70
12
60-70
23
50-60
28
40-50
43
30-40
46
20-30
60
10-20
68
<10
14
No urban
18
Total
312
The high presence of Muslims in the urban demography of Uttar Pradesh looks even more widespread at the level of the sub-districts (or taluks). According to the Census of 2011, the State is divided into a total of 312 taluks. Of these, there are 18 with no urban population. Among the remaining 294, Muslims form a majority in the urban population of 106, and their share is between 40 to 50 percent in another 43. Thus, in more than half of the Taluks, Muslims form a majority or near majority. They have a significant presence in nearly all the taluks; there are only 14 taluks, where their share in the urban population is below 10 percent. In the Map below, taluks with a majority of Muslims in the urban population are marked in white. Such taluks are spread through much of the State except in the southwestern and southern parts. Even in these parts, where the share of Muslims in the total population is rather low, there are occasional taluks with the Muslims having a share of more than 40 percent in the urban population. For example, there is Maudaha in Hamirpur district with 42.4 percent Muslims in its urban population, while the share of Muslims in the total population of the district is only 8.3 percent.


Muslims in the Towns of Uttar Pradesh

Muslims form a majority in a quarter of the towns

Number of Towns
%M
1981
2011
>90
0
15
80-90
12
37
70-80
24
47
60-70
22
52
50-60
43
80
40-50
56
80
30-40
78
114
20-30
111
113
10-20
127
186
<10
134
191
Total
607
915
The widespread presence of Muslims in the urban demography of Uttar Pradesh is most clearly seen when we analyse the data at the level of the towns. Census 2011 counts a total of 915 towns in Uttar Pradesh. Muslims form a majority in 231 of these. Among these 231, there are 15 towns, where Muslims form more than 90 percent of the population and there are another 37, where their share is between 80 to 90 percent. In the Table here, we have also given the distribution of towns according to the share of Muslims in 1981. At that time, the number of towns with a Muslim majority was only 101 and there were no towns with more than 90 percent Muslims. In the three decades between 1981 and 2011, Muslim presence in the towns of Uttar Pradesh has considerably increased.




Muslims are in a majority in two-thirds of the towns of West UP
%M
2011
>90
11
80-90
20
70-80
24
60-70
21
50-60
27
40-50
12
30-40
11
20-30
11
10-20
7
<10
10
Total
154
Of 231 Muslim-majority towns in the State, 103 are in the eight districts in the West UP pocket of high Muslim presence. There are a total of 154 towns in this pocket. Muslims are thus in a majority in two-thirds of the towns of this pocket. Eleven of the 15 towns with Muslim presence of more than 90 percent are located in these eight districts. Of the rest, two are in Kanshiram Nagar, one in Bulandshahr and one in Budaun. The share of Muslims in the total population of Bulandshahr and Budaun is around 22 percent and it is less than 15 percent in Kanshiram Nagar. The share of Muslims in the towns of the West UP pocket of high Muslim presence is indeed very high. But Muslim-dominant towns exist also in those areas where Muslim presence otherwise is low.




List of Muslim-majority towns
To form an idea of the dominance of Muslims in the towns of Uttar Pradesh, it is instructive to look at the complete list of 231 Muslim majority towns, which we give below. There is one or more Muslim majority town in 52 of the 71 districts of the State. Thus, there is at least some urban pocket of Muslim-dominance nearly everywhere.

Saharanpur
Total
%M

Rampur Continued…
Total
%M
Kailashpur (CT)
11,422
79.99

Bilaspur (NPP)
43,908
53.80
Ambehta (NP)
15,739
74.19

Maswasi (NP)
17,737
51.83
Behat (NP)
20,474
72.64

Jyotiba Phule Nagar


Deoband (NPP)
97,037
71.06

Naugawan Sadat (NP)
32,954
93.69
Chilkana Sultanpur (NP)
19,501
66.17

Beelna (CT)
7,024
81.88
Gangoh (NPP)
59,279
65.12

Bachhraon (NPP)
31,101
79.53
Nanauta (NP)
22,551
62.89

Ujhari (NP)
24,488
76.73
Gagalhedi Must. (CT)
7,776
55.38

Amroha (NPP)
1,98,471
73.80
Chhutmalpur (CT)
14,274
50.66

Joya (NP)
18,377
73.05
Muzaffarnagar

Hasanpur (NPP)
61,243
64.97
Kairana (NPP)
89,000
80.74

Meerut


Purquazi (NP + OG)
29,041
76.33

Kithaur (NP)
27,933
87.79
Jalalabad (NP)
27,921
74.62

Sewalkhas (NP)
24,882
86.43
Kandhla (NPP)
46,796
69.77

Sardhana (NPP)
58,252
64.09
Khatauli Rural (CT)
14,949
65.32

Sindhawali (CT)
5,335
63.75
Budhana (NP + OG)
53,722
64.62

Lawar (NP)
22,024
62.64
Miranpur (NP)
29,283
60.51

Phalauda (NP)
19,908
55.47
Shahpur (NP)
20,154
60.40

Mawana (NPP)
81,443
54.54
Shahbudinpur (CT)
25,157
59.86

Baghpat


Jansath (NP)
19,786
59.77

Baghpat (NPP)
50,310
60.34
Garhi Pukhta (NP)
11,748
59.76

Ghaziabad


Khatauli (NPP)
72,949
57.52

Dasna (NP)
34,914
80.78
Charthawal (NP)
20,653
57.36

Faridnagar (NP)
12,785
56.18
Jhinjhana (NP)
18,740
57.13

Buxer (CT)
11,499
52.76
Sarwat (CT)
34,846
55.91

Muradnagar (NPP)
95,208
50.04
Thana Bhawan (NP)
36,669
55.12

Gautam Buddha Nagar


Bijnor

Bilaspur (NP)
8,980
53.94
Sahaspur (NP)
24,463
91.16

Bulandshahr


Jalalabad (NP)
20,360
89.97

Hasangarh (CT)
6,541
94.10
Kotwali (CT)
11,221
88.97

Khanpur (NP)
17,247
59.03
Basta (CT)
8,697
85.96

Bugrasi (NP)
14,992
57.54
Afzalgarh (NPP)
29,101
85.88

Gulaothi (NPP)
50,823
55.31
Sahanpur (NP)
21,639
84.30

Pahasu (NP)
20,672
54.52
Sadruddin Nagar (CT)
3,506
82.92

Aurangabad (NP)
26,544
53.18
Mandawar (NP)
21,078
76.81

Aligarh


Kiratpur (NPP + OG)
61,946
76.62

Dhaurra Mafi (CT)
13,241
81.90
Nehtaur (NPP)
47,834
75.89

Ramgarh Panjoopur (CT)
18,897
78.40
Sherkot (NPP)
62,226
74.22

Pilkhana (NP)
11,518
77.71
Seohara (NPP + OG)
53,296
71.86

Kauriaganj (NP)
12,244
59.41
Chandpur (NPP)
83,441
71.77

Manjoor Garhi (CT)
9,381
51.25
Najibabad (NPP)
88,535
71.32

Budaun


Nagina (NPP)
95,246
70.53

Kakrala (NPP)
37,986
90.08
Warhapur (NP)
23,456
69.75

Saidpur (NP)
15,545
89.04
Noorpur (NPP)
38,806
62.87

Sakhanu (NP)
10,627
68.53
Jhalu (NP)
20,978
61.46

Sahaswan (NPP)
66,204
68.50
Dhampur Husainpur (CT)
6,752
58.44

Usehat (NP)
16,361
62.80
Bijnor (NPP)
93,297
54.48

Gunnaur (NP)
23,665
62.42
Mukrampur Khema (CT)
14,089
53.25

Islamnagar (NP)
31,022
62.20
Moradabad

Allapur (NP)
23,985
55.43
Umri Kalan (NP)
17,803
98.11

Faizganj (NP)
12,334
54.28
Bhojpur Dharampur (NP)
31,305
90.90

Bareilly


Barwara Mazra (CT)
9,455
90.19

Saidpur Khajuria (CT)
9,439
97.22
Gadhi (CT)
9,933
90.09

Parsona (CT)
6,946
96.33
Sirsi (NP)
26,519
85.93

Padarathpur (CT)
8,852
94.69
Kundarki (NP)
29,951
81.54

Thiriya Nizamat Khan (NP)
23,184
92.76
Sambhal (NPP)
2,20,813
77.67

Shishgarh (NP)
25,815
88.67
Thakurdwara (NPP)
44,255
75.94

Richha (NP)
20,977
86.97
Pakbara (CT)
36,728
74.47

Hafiz Ganj (CT)
9,447
83.30
Got (CT)
6,599
71.50

Sainthal (NP)
15,332
82.68
Rustamnagar Sahaspur (CT)
18,677
68.06

Dhaura Tanda (NP)
23,727
80.99
Kanth (NP)
26,381
55.60

Deoranian (NP)
20,815
70.22
Bilari (NPP)
37,567
54.25

Baheri (NPP)
68,413
68.73
Narauli (NP)
18,346
51.78

Sirauli (NP)
23,650
68.19
Rampur

Shahi (NP)
16,950
67.14
Saijni Nankar (CT)
8,572
92.03

Nawabganj (NPP)
39,241
57.31
Kemri (NP)
28,698
85.07

Shergarh (NP)
16,247
57.30
Suar (NPP)
32,158
84.93

Mirganj (NP)
17,542
56.65

Tanda (NPP)
48,059
81.87

Bisharatganj (NP)
15,975
55.08
Rampur (NPP)
3,25,313
70.02

Faridpur (NP)
7,673
54.48
Ajitpur (CT)
15,373
67.31

Aonla (NPP)
55,629
50.68
Shahabad (NP)
38,276
63.71

Faridpur (NPP)
78,249
50.62

List of Muslim-majority towns continued...

Pilibhit
Total
%M

Sultanpur
Total
%M
Nyoria Husainpur (NP)
21,812
88.30

Nihal Garh Chak Jangla (CT)
7,345
67.41
Jahanabad (NP)
14,328
62.12

Kasba Sultanpur (CT)
8,304
60.54
Shahjahanpu

Palpur (CT)
5,702
55.70
Tilhar (NPP)
61,444
57.23

Bahraich


Katra (NP)
32,440
57.08

Jarwal (NP)
19,289
79.58
Kanth (NP)
27,137
56.28

Nanpara (NPP)
48,337
72.84
Kheri

Bahraich (NPP)
1,86,223
56.07
Kheri (NP)
33,355
79.33

Shrawasti


Dhaurehra (NP)
24,518
53.58

Bhinga (NP)
23,780
56.95
Sitapur

Balrampur


Tambaur-cum-Ahamdabad (NP)
26,052
77.45

Ganwaria Tulsipur (Dehat) (CT)
5,748
71.29
Laharpur (NPP)
61,990
76.96

Utraula (NPP)
32,145
60.30
Paintepur (NP)
13,917
71.12

Pachperwa (NP)
17,220
59.00
Khairabad (NPP)
48,538
70.69

Gonda


Mahmudabad (NPP)
50,777
57.02

Katra (NP)
8,108
69.31
Biswan (NPP)
55,780
53.98

Colonelganj (NPP)
29,435
64.10
Hardoi

Pure Tiwari (CT)
4,609
62.79
Gopamau (NP)
15,526
65.46

Gird Gonda (CT)
14,391
52.02
Pihani (NPP)
36,014
63.01

Siddharthnagar


Sandila (NPP)
58,346
55.49

Hallaur (CT)
6,999
87.64
Shahabad (NPP)
80,226
51.53

Sant Kabir Nagar


Unnao

Ledwa Mahua (CT)
13,844
74.39
Kursath (NP)
6,770
76.51

Maghar (NP)
19,181
53.73
Ganj Muradabad (NP)
10,957
67.98

Gorakhpur


Lucknow

Piprayli Bujurg (CT)
6,270
52.82
Malihabad (NP)
17,818
61.67

Azamgarh


Rae Bareli

Chak Sikari (CT)
8,820
85.27
Salon (NP)
14,757
66.93

Mubarakpur (NPP)
70,463
84.35
Jais (NPP)
26,735
61.05

Ibrahimpur (CT)
7,853
80.02
Parsadepur (NP)
11,853
57.21

Amilo (CT)
30,339
72.63
Unchahar (NP)
11,033
55.04

Bilariaganj (NP)
13,096
63.23
Farrukhabad

Barahatir Jagdishpur (CT)
15,367
56.94
Amethi Jadid (CT)
5,642
69.25

Sarai Mir (NP)
19,055
52.01
Shamsabad (NP)
28,454
60.72

Mau


Kannauj

Atrari (CT)
5,555
86.91
Samdhan (NP)
31,479
83.12

Khairabad (CT)
13,016
84.96
Talgram (NP)
11,665
50.92

Kurthi Jafarpur (CT)
14,157
75.77
Auraiya

Kopaganj (NP)
34,782
72.17
Kasba Khanpur (CT)
11,938
81.01

Para (CT)
6,427
67.14
Kanpur Dehat

Adari (NP)
13,717
64.07
Ahrauli Shekh (CT)
7,383
52.88

Ghosi (NP)
39,165
61.41
Kanpur Nagar

Walidpur (CT)
25,589
58.05
Bilhaur (NPP)
20,493
55.67

Maunath Bhanjan (NPP)
2,78,745
56.76
Fatehpur

Ballia


Kora Jahanabad (NP)
26,359
50.15

Premchak Urf Baheri (CT)
7,063
67.32
Pratapgarh

Jaunpur


Katra Medniganj (NP)
7,931
58.93

Machhlishahr (NP)
26,107
55.34
Kaushambi

Khetasarai (NP)
19,438
50.18
Karari (NP)
16,467
59.12

Ghazipur


Allahabad

Bahadurganj (NP)
19,992
55.93
Mau Aima (NP)
19,645
75.04

Chandauli


Bharatganj (NP)
16,345
62.45

Satpokhari (CT)
13,757
87.64
Soraon (CT)
10,624
57.36

Chaurhat (CT)
7,971
82.21
Phulpur (NP)
22,998
54.21

Dulhipur (CT)
8,243
60.71
Barabanki

Bahadurpur (CT)
8,515
54.43
Zaidpur (NP)
34,443
81.89

Varanasi


Dewa (NP)
15,662
73.30

Kotwa (CT)
14,394
80.76
Dariyabad (NP)
18,338
67.11

Harpalpur (CT)
7,710
77.72
Fatehpur (NP)
35,582
65.51

Lohta (CT)
25,596
76.34
Satrikh (NP)
12,107
55.86

Sant Ravidas Nagar


Subeha (NP)
13,772
50.55

Ghosia Bazar (NP)
20,760
77.37
Faizabad

Bhadohi (NPP)
94,620
57.02
Rudauli (NPP)
43,091
58.88

Mirzapur


Bhadarsa (NP)
13,154
57.42

Garauri (CT)
5,378
54.35
Ambedkar Nagar

Kanshiram Nagar


Bhulepur (CT)
6,445
81.52

Sujavalpur (CT)
9,835
94.12
Tanda (NPP)
95,516
72.16

Bhargain (NP)
21,891
92.94
Iltifatganj Bazar (NP)
13,136
71.31

Sahawar (NP)
24,067
60.65
Jalalpur (NPP)
31,972
70.59

Ganj Dundawara (NPP)
45,385
55.26










Growth of the Muslims in some Representative Towns

Religious Distribution of Representative Towns
KAIRANA (Muzaffarnagar)
Total
IR
M
%IR
%M
1971
32,353
13,046
19,296
40.32
59.64
1981
44,505
17,407
27,086
39.11
60.86
1991
56,079
14,863
41,205
26.50
73.48
2001
73,011
16,436
56,341
22.51
77.17
2011
89,000
16,938
71,863
19.03
80.74
KANDHLA (Muzaffarnagar)
1971
20,061
9,803
10,253
48.87
51.11
1981
25,522
13,451
12,071
52.70
47.30
1991
32,513
12,522
19,991
38.51
61.49
2001
40,136
13,594
26,521
33.87
66.08
2011
46,796
13,930
32,650
29.77
69.77
DEOBAND (Saharanpur)
1971
38,194
15,636
22,541
40.94
59.02
1981
51,274
22,061
29,186
43.03
56.92
1991
66,208
23,362
42,834
35.29
64.70
2001
81,641
27,148
54,241
33.25
66.44
2011
97,037
27,837
68,955
28.69
71.06
SHAMLI (Muzaffarnagar)
1971
36,959
29,630
7,201
80.17
19.48
1981
51,850
39,841
11,872
76.84
22.90
1991
70,853
53,989
16,632
76.20
23.47
2001
90,055
66,910
23,077
74.30
25.63
2011
1,07,266
76,850
30,263
71.64
28.21
PUR QUAZI (Muzaffarnagar)
1981
13,412
6,961
6,451
51.90
48.10
1991
17,752
5,344
12,408
30.10
69.90
2001
23,599
6,416
17,157
27.19
72.70
2011
29,041
6,830
22,167
23.52
76.33
KHATAULI (Muzaffarnagar)
1971
24,495
15,218
8,912
62.13
36.38
1981
31,384
18,417
12,491
58.68
39.80
1991
44,319
23,622
20,303
53.30
45.81
2001
58,622
26,716
31,465
45.57
53.67
2011
72,949
30,592
41,958
41.94
57.52
BAGHPAT (Baghpat)
1971
11,666
6,843
4,809
58.66
41.22
1981
17,157
11,150
6,007
64.99
35.01
1991
24,939
12,599
12,339
50.52
49.48
2001
36,384
15,876
20,438
43.63
56.17
2011
50,310
19,915
30,358
39.58
60.34
BHADOHI (Sant Kabir Nagar)
1971
23,250
12,168
11,078
52.34
47.65
1981
32,192
20,976
11,212
65.16
34.83
1991
64,010
31,234
32,776
48.80
51.20
2001
74,522
33,401
41,047
44.82
55.08
2011
94,620
40,235
53,948
42.52
57.02
COLONELGANJ (Gonda)
1971
11,743
5,525
6,179
47.05
52.62
1981
14,984
9,253
5,730
61.75
38.24
1991
20,778
9,171
11,607
44.14
55.86
2001
24,142
9,140
14,982
37.86
62.06
2011
29,435
10,489
18,869
35.63
64.10
A large number of the towns in the above list have acquired a Muslim-majority in the course of the last three decades. Since, there were only 101 Muslim-majority towns in 1981, the remaining 130 are either towns where the share of Muslims has increased to this level in the course of the last three decades or those that have been added to the list of towns after 1981.

The share of Muslims has indeed increased rather fast in several towns. An analysis of the share of Muslims in the towns of 1981 and 2011 indicates that there are at least 68 Muslim-majority towns of 2011, which were also counted as towns in 1981 but did not have a Muslim majority then.

In the list of towns of 1981, there are 61, where the share of Muslims in the population has increased by more than 20 percentage points in the last three decades and there are 18 where the rise has been of more than 30 percentage points.

The towns, where the presence of Muslims has recorded this level of high increase, are spread out throughout the State. In every part of the State, there are towns that have acquired a high concentration of Muslims in the recent past. In addition, there have emerged several new towns with a very high share of Muslims.

It is interesting to look at the way the religious demography of some of the towns in the State has been transformed in the course of the last three decades. The Table here gives the numbers for 9 representative towns. The list contains a larger number of towns from West UP, because the phenomenon is the most acute there. But, we have also included two such towns from other parts of the State. As can be seen in the Table, the relative balance between the Muslims and Indian Religionists has been transformed in these towns in the course of the last two or three decades, and this transformation has often involved a declined in the absolute number, not merely the share, of Indian Religionists.

There are also a few towns, where the share of Muslims has declined. Looking at the data, it seems that some kind of ferment is going on in the urban demography of the State, with the different communities seeking to consolidate their numbers in different towns; the consolidation, however, seems largely in favour of the Muslims.

Such transformation has serious social, economic and political consequences. It is the business of the social scientists to study such phenomenon from various perspectives.












Summing Up

1. Muslims have a much higher influence in the urban areas of Uttar Pradesh than what is indicated by their average share in the total population of the State.
2. They have a share of 37.2 percent in the urban population of the State, compared to their share of only 19.3 percent in the total population.
3. This is, of course, because of the higher concentration of Muslims in the urban areas. Of the Muslims in the State, 37.2 percent are urban. The urban ratio of the rest of the population in the State is only 15.1 percent.
4. The level of urbanisation of the Muslims is such that they form a majority in the urban population of 8 districts of the State and they have a share of between 40 and 50 percent in another 13 districts. These districts with high Muslim presence in the urban areas are spread throughout the State.
5. The dominance of Muslims in the urban demography of the State looks deeper and more widespread when we analyse the data at the sub-district (taluk) level. Muslims form a majority in the urban population of 106 of the 294 urban taluks of the State, and they have a share of 40 to 50 percent in another 43.
6. Among 106 taluks with a majority of Muslims in the urban population, there are 12 where the share of Muslims is above 70 percent and another 23 where their share is between 60 to 70 percent.
7. Muslim dominance looks even more intense at the town level. Census 2011 counts a total of 915 towns in Uttar Pradesh. Muslims form a majority in 231 of these. These Muslim-majority towns are spread all across the State.
8. Among 231 Muslim-majority towns in the State, there are 15 where Muslims form more than 90 percent of the population and there are another 37 where their share is between 80 to 90 percent.
9. Analysis of the data for the earlier decades shows that the dominance of Muslims in the towns of Uttar Pradesh has been rising sharply, particularly after 1981.
10. There were only 607 towns counted in 1981 and Muslims formed a majority of only 101 amongst them. The number of Muslims majority towns has thus increased from 101 to 231 in these three decades.
11. The data strongly indicates that the rapid rise in the share of Muslims in the towns of Uttar Pradesh during the last two or three decades has involved or led to an out-migration of other communities, mainly Hindus, from several towns.